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Ophthalmology / Retinovit
  1. Br J Ophthalmol. 2017 May;101(5):551-558. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2016-309814. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

Putative protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in diabetic retinopathy.

Neelam K1,2Goenadi CJ3Lun K3Yip CC1Au Eong KG1,4,5.

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Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most important microvascular complications of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness in the working-age individuals. The exact aetiopathogenesis of DR remains elusive despite major advances in basic science and clinical research. Oxidative damage as one of the underlying causes for DR is increasingly being recognised. In humans, three hydroxycarotenoids, lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), accumulate at the central retina (to the exclusion of all other dietary carotenoids), where they are collectively known as macular pigment. These hydroxycarotenoids by nature of their biochemical structure and function help neutralise reactive oxygen species, and thereby, prevent oxidative damage to the retina (biological antioxidants). Apart from their key antioxidant function, evidence is emerging that these carotenoids may also exhibit neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory function in the retina. Since the preliminary identification of hydroxycarotenoid in the human macula by Wald in the 1940s, there has been astounding progress in our knowledge of the role of these carotenoids in promoting ocular health. While the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 has established a clinical benefit for L and Z supplements in patients with age-related macular degeneration, the role of these carotenoids in other retinal diseases potentially linked to oxidative damage remains unclear. In this article, we comprehensively review the literature germane to the putative protective role of two hydroxycarotenoids, L and Z, in the pathogenesis of DR.

Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

KEYWORDS:

Retina; Treatment Medical

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28232380

 

 

  1. Vestn Oftalmol. 2015 May-Jun;131(3):34-44. doi: 10.17116/oftalma2015131334-44.

[Results of the use of antioxidant and angioprotective agents in type 2 diabetes patients with diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration].

[Article in Russian; Abstract available in Russian from the publisher]

Moshetova LK1Vorob'eva IV1Alekseev IB1Mikhaleva LG1.

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Abstract

in EnglishRussian

AIM:

to investigate changes in clinical, functional, and morphological parameters of the retina in type 2 diabetes patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and those with combined fundus pathology (DR plus age-related macular degeneration (AMD)) before and after a course of antioxidants and angioprotectors in the form of mono- or combination therapy.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

The study included 180 patients (180 eyes) with type 2 diabetes divided into 6 groups of 30 each. DR was graded according to E. Kohner and M. Porta classification, AMD--AREDS classification. Thus, group 1 consisted of patients with DRO,; group 2--DR1 without DM, group 3--DR1 with DM, group 4--DRO and "dry" AMD (AREDS 1-3), group 5--DR1 with no DM but with AMD (AREDS 1-3), and group 6--DR1 with DM and AMD (AREDS 1-3). A drug containing lutein 6 mg, zeaxanthin 0.5 mg, vitamin C 60 mg, vitamin E 7 mg, vitamin A 1.5 mg, vitamin B2 1.2 mg, rutin 25 mg, zinc 5 mg, selenium 25 mcg, and bilberry extract 60 mg was used for antioxidative therapy. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract 60 mg was chosen as the angioprotector. In all patients visual acuity, macular thickness and morphology (OCT) as well as light sensitivity (microperimetry) were assessed before and after the treatment course.

RESULTS:

Analysis of baseline measurements demonstrated a significant decrease in best corrected visual acuity (p < 0.05) in study groups 2-6 as compared with group 1. Macular thickness was increased in all groups, however, the changes were statistically significant only in groups 3 and 6 (p<0.05). Light sensitivity of the macula showed a reduction, which was statistically significant in groups 4-6 (p < 0.05). After the course of antioxidant and angioprotective therapy, these parameters improved in all groups. The greatest effect was achieved with simultaneous antioxidant and double-dose angioprotective therapy (240 mg per day): visual acuity increased significantly (p < 0.05) in all groups except group 1; macular thickness decreased in all groups, however, the changes were statistically significant (p < 0.05) only in groups 1-3 and 5; light sensitivity also improved in all groups, significantly (p < 0.05) in groups 1-3 and 4.

CONCLUSIONS:

Extended analysis of clinical, functional and morphological changes in the retina at the onset of DR in type 2 diabetespatients with concomitant "dry" AMD enables timely diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, and early treatment. Conservative treatment with antioxidant and angioprotective agents has been proved effective in type 2 diabetes patients with preclinical (DRO) and early (DR1) diabetic retinopathy and those with DR and "dry" AMD (AREDS 1-3) in terms of functional and morphological parameters of the retina. From all the regimens, a combined antioxidant and double-dose angioprotective (240 mg) therapy appeared to be the most effective and can be considered not only a preventive, but also a therapeutic measure in type 2 diabetes patients with initial stages of DR (DRO, DR1) or those with DR and DM or combined DR and AMD (AREDS 1-3).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26310005

 

 

 

  1. Eye Vis (Lond). 2017 Oct 15;4:23. doi: 10.1186/s40662-017-0088-4. eCollection 2017.

Effect of carotenoids dietary supplementation on macular function in diabetic patients.

Moschos MM#1Dettoraki M#1Tsatsos M2Kitsos G3Kalogeropoulos C3.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of visual impairment and blindness among working-age people worldwide. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of a carotenoid supplementation on retinal thickness and macular function of patients with diabetes using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG).

METHODS:

A retrospective study of one hundred and twenty eyes of sixty patients age between 40 and 60 years with non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy who underwent OCT and mfERG and took vitamin supplements for a period of two years. Patients received a carotenoid supplement containing lutein (10 mg), zeaxanthin (2 mg) and meso-zeaxanthin (10 mg) once a day for two years. The thickness of the fovea was evaluated using OCT and the macular function was tested by mfERG.

RESULTS:

OCT showed an increase in the central foveal thickness and mfERG revealed increased retinal response density within the central 13° surrounding the fovea (rings 1 to 3) at two years after the onset of carotenoids supplement intake.

CONCLUSION:

The use of carotenoid supplements may be of benefit for improving visual function of type 2 diabetes patients. However, further study is needed to assess the treatment's long-term efficacy.

KEYWORDS:

Carotenoids; Diabetes mellitus; Multifocal electroretinography; Optical coherence tomography; Visual function

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29046877

 

 

 

 

  1. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 Oct 1;58(12):5347-5360. doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-21192.

The Impact of Supplemental Antioxidants on Visual Function in Nonadvanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Head-to-Head Randomized Clinical Trial.

Akuffo KO1Beatty S1Peto T2Stack J1Stringham J3Kelly D1Leung I4Corcoran L1Nolan JM1.

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Abstract

PURPOSE:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of supplemental macular carotenoids (including versus not including meso-zeaxanthin) in combination with coantioxidants on visual function in patients with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration.

METHODS:

In this study, 121 participants were randomly assigned to group 1 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 formulation with a low dose [25 mg] of zinc and an addition of 10 mg meso-zeaxanthin; n = 60) or group 2 (Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 formulation with a low dose [25 mg] of zinc; n = 61). Visual function was assessed using best-corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity (CS), glare disability, retinal straylight, photostress recovery time, reading performance, and the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25. Macular pigment was measured using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry.

RESULTS:

There was a statistically significant improvement in the primary outcome measure (letter CS at 6 cycles per degree [6 cpd]) over time (P = 0.013), and this observed improvement was statistically comparable between interventions (P = 0.881). Statistically significant improvements in several secondary outcome visual function measures (letter CS at 1.2 and 2.4 cpd; mesopic and photopic CS at all spatial frequencies; mesopic glare disability at 1.5, 3, and 6 cpd; photopic glare disability at 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 cpd; photostress recovery time; retinal straylight; mean and maximum reading speed) were also observed over time (P < 0.05, for all), and were statistically comparable between interventions (P > 0.05, for all). Statistically significant increases in macular pigment at all eccentricities were observed over time (P < 0.0005, for all), and the degree of augmentation was statistically comparable between interventions (P > 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Antioxidant supplementation in patients with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration results in significant increases in macular pigment and improvements in CS and other measures of visual function. (Clinical trial, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN13894787).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053808

 

 

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